Other Names: rutoside, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside, sophorin

Rutin is a purified flavonoid (plant pigment) that is found naturally in a number of fruits and vegetables including buckwheat, citrus fruits, mulberry and rose hips. Along with other flavonoids, rutin is a frequently used supplement that promotes a healthy immune system, supports the body’s circulation system, helps the body better utilize vitamin C, acts as an antioxidant and more.

Many studies have been performed to demonstrate the usefulness of rutin. It has been shown to:

  • Enhance processes in the body which promote natural defenses that protect DNA
  • Promote the body’s ability to naturally protect itself from oxidative stress and free radicals
  • Support the immune system’s ability to use its natural defenses to handle stress

Furthermore, flavonoids such as rutin are potent antioxidants that enhance the body’s detoxification system so that it can naturally get rid of harmful substances that can attack and destroy healthy cells. Many flavonoids offer health benefits, but when compared with quercetin, acacetin, morin, hispidulin, hesperidin and naringin, rutin may be the strongest and most helpful.

Studies on Rutin:

  1. Boyle SP, Dobson VL, Duthie SJ, Hinselwood DC, Kyle JA, Collins AR. Bioavailability and efficiency of rutin as an antioxidant: a human supplementation study. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2000 Oct;54(10):774-82.
  2. Olthof MR, Hollman PC, Vree TB, Katan MB. Bioavailabilities of quercetin-3-glucoside and quercetin-4′-glucoside do not differ in humans. J Nutr. 2000 May;130(5):1200-3.
  3. SP Boyle, VL Dobson, SJ Duthie, DC Hinselwood, JAM Kyle and AR Collins. Bioavailability and efficiency of rutin as an antioxidant: a human supplementation study. EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION · OCTOBER 2000.

Other research:

  1. Żmijewski M, Sokół-Łętowska A, Pejcz E, Orzeł D. Antioxidant activity of rye bread enriched with milled buckwheat groats fractions. Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig. 2015;66(2):115-21.
  2. Walia M, Kumar S, Agnihotri VK. UPLC-PDA quantification of chemical constituents of two different varieties (golden and royal) of apple leaves and their antioxidant activity. J Sci Food Agric. 2015 Apr 27. doi: 10.1002/jsfa.7239. [Epub ahead of print]
  3. Sárközi K, Papp A, Máté Z, Horváth E, Paulik E, Szabó A. Rutin, a flavonoid phytochemical, ameliorates certain behavioral and electrophysiological alterations and general toxicity of oral arsenic in rats. Acta Biol Hung. 2015 Mar;66(1):14-26. doi: 10.1556/ABiol.66.2015.1.2.
  4. Cho YJ, Lee S. Extraction of rutin from Tartary buckwheat milling fractions and evaluation of its thermal stability in an instant fried noodle system. Food Chem. 2015 Jun 1;176:40-4. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.12.020. Epub 2014 Dec 16.
  5. Wang J, Cao X, Jiang H, Qi Y, Chin KL, Yue Y. Antioxidant activity of leaf extracts from different Hibiscus sabdariffa accessions and simultaneous determination five major antioxidant compounds by LC-Q-TOF-MS. Molecules. 2014 Dec 17;19(12):21226-38. doi: 10.3390/molecules191221226.
  6. Hernández-Herrero JA, Frutos MJ. Influence of rutin and ascorbic acid in colour, plum anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity stability in model juices. Food Chem. 2015 Apr 15;173:495-500. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.10.059. Epub 2014 Oct 18.
  7. Aziza SA, Azab Mel-S, El-Shall SK. Ameliorating role of rutin on oxidative stress induced by iron overload in hepatic tissue of rats. Pak J Biol Sci. 2014 Aug;17(8):964-77.
  8. Ghate NB, Chaudhuri D, Das A, Panja S, Mandal N. An Antioxidant Extract of the Insectivorous Plant Drosera burmannii Vahl. Alleviates Iron-Induced Oxidative Stress and Hepatic Injury in Mice. PLoS One. 2015 May 26;10(5):e0128221. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0128221. eCollection 2015.
  9. Ramírez-Anaya Jdel P, Samaniego-Sánchez C, Castañeda-Saucedo MC, Villalón-Mir M, de la Serrana HL. Phenols and the antioxidant capacity of Mediterranean vegetables prepared with extra virgin olive oil using different domestic cooking techniques. Food Chem. 2015 Dec 1;188:430-8. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.04.124. Epub 2015 Apr 28.
  10. Kraujalytė V, Venskutonis PR, Pukalskas A, Česonienė L, Daubaras R. Antioxidant properties, phenolic composition and potentiometric sensor array evaluation of commercial and new blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) and bog blueberry (Vaccinium uliginosum) genotypes. Food Chem. 2015 Dec 1;188:583-90. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.05.031. Epub 2015 May 8.
  11. Li Q, Qiu Y, Mao M, Lv J, Zhang L, Li S, Li X, Zheng X. Antioxidant mechanism of Rutin on hypoxia-induced pulmonary arterial cell proliferation. Molecules. 2014 Nov 18;19(11):19036-49. doi: 10.3390/molecules191119036.
  12. Zhang L, Lai YC, Wang HT, Wang RK, Meng Q, Zheng WH. [Protective effect of rutin against oxidative injury in neuronal cells]. [Article in Chinese] Zhong Yao Cai. 2014 Apr;37(4):640-4.
  13. Helal A, Desobry S, Banon S, Shamsia SM. Antioxidant activity and bioaccessibility of phenols-enriched edible casein/caseinate coatings during in vitro digestion. J Dairy Res. 2015 Feb;82(1):56-63. doi: 10.1017/S0022029914000557. Epub 2014 Oct 20.
  14. Patil SL, Rao NB, Somashekarappa HM, Rajashekhar KP. Antigenotoxic potential of rutin and quercetin in Swiss mice exposed to gamma radiation. Biomed J. 2014 Sep-Oct;37(5):305-13. doi: 10.4103/2319-4170.132880.
  15. Schwingel TE, Klein CP, Nicoletti NF, Dora CL, Hadrich G, Bica CG, Lopes TG, da Silva VD, Morrone FB. Effects of the compounds resveratrol, rutin, quercetin, and quercetin nanoemulsion on oxaliplatin-induced hepatotoxicity and neurotoxicity in mice. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2014 Sep;387(9):837-48. doi: 10.1007/s00210-014-0994-0. Epub 2014 Jun 8.
  16. Volková M, Forstová-Krízová V, Skálová L, Trejtnar F. Modulatory effects of quercetin and rutin on the activity, expression and inducibility of CYP1A1 in intestinal HCT-8 cells. Phytother Res. 2013 Dec;27(12):1889-93.
  17. Kamel KM, Abd El-Raouf OM, Metwally SA, Abd El-Latif HA, El-sayed ME. Hesperidin and rutin, antioxidant citrus flavonoids, attenuate cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. J Biochem Mol Toxicol. 2014 Jul;28(7):312-9. doi: 10.1002/jbt.21567. Epub 2014 May 13.
  18. Kerdudo A, Dingas A, Fernandez X, Faure C. Encapsulation of rutin and naringenin in multilamellar vesicles for optimum antioxidant activity. Food Chem. 2014 Sep 15;159:12-9. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.03.005. Epub 2014 Mar 12.
  19. Umarani V, Muvvala S, Ramesh A, Lakshmi BV, Sravanthi N. Rutin potentially attenuates fluoride-induced oxidative stress-mediated cardiotoxicity, blood toxicity and dyslipidemia in rats. Toxicol Mech Methods. 2015 Feb;25(2):143-9. doi: 10.3109/15376516.2014.1003359. Epub 2015 Feb 11.
  20. Choi KS, Kundu JK, Chun KS, Na HK, Surh YJ. Rutin inhibits UVB radiation-induced expression of COX-2 and iNOS in hairless mouse skin: p38 MAP kinase and JNK as potential targets. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2014 Oct 1;559:38-45. doi: 10.1016/j.abb.2014.05.016. Epub 2014 May 26.
  21. Sunada S, Fujisawa H, Cartwright IM, Maeda J, Brents CA, Mizuno K, Aizawa Y, Kato TA, Uesaka M. Monoglucosyl-rutin as a potential radioprotector in mammalian cells. Mol Med Rep. 2014 Jul;10(1):10-4. doi: 10.3892/mmr.2014.2181. Epub 2014 Apr 24.
  22. García-Rodríguez Mdel C, Nicolás-Méndez T, Montaño-Rodríguez AR, Altamirano-Lozano MA. Antigenotoxic effects of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), quercetin, and rutin on chromium trioxide-induced micronuclei in the polychromatic erythrocytes of mouse peripheral blood. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2014;77(6):324-36. doi: 10.1080/15287394.2013.865006.
  23. Hsieh CL, Peng CC, Chen KC, Peng RY. Rutin (quercetin rutinoside) induced protein-energy malnutrition in chronic kidney disease, but quercetin acted beneficially. J Agric Food Chem. 2013 Jul 31;61(30):7258-67. doi: 10.1021/jf304595p. Epub 2013 Jul 22.
  24. Al-Rejaie SS, Aleisa AM, Sayed-Ahmed MM, Al-Shabanah OA, Abuohashish HM, Ahmed MM, Al-Hosaini KA, Hafez MM. Protective effect of rutin on the antioxidant genes expression in hypercholestrolemic male Westar rat. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2013 Jun 17;13:136. doi: 10.1186/1472-6882-13-136.
  25. Khan RA, Khan MR, Sahreen S. Protective effects of rutin against potassium bromate induced nephrotoxicity in rats. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2012 Nov 1;12:204. doi: 10.1186/1472-6882-12-204.
  26. Zheng YD, Luo QL, Zhou ML, Wang DZ, Zhang YD, Shao JR, Zhu XM, Tang Y. Isolation and screening of strains producing high amounts of rutin degrading enzymes from Fagopyrum tataricum seeds. J Basic Microbiol. 2013 Feb;53(2):181-7. doi: 10.1002/jobm.201100337. Epub 2012 May 14.
  27. Barcelos GR, Grotto D, Angeli JP, Serpeloni JM, Rocha BA, Bastos JK, Barbosa F Jr. Evaluation of antigenotoxic effects of plant flavonoids quercetin and rutin on HepG2 cells. Phytother Res. 2011 Sep;25(9):1381-8. doi: 10.1002/ptr.3436. Epub 2011 Feb 24.
  28. Santos BL, Silva AR, Pitanga BP, Sousa CS, Grangeiro MS, Fragomeni BO, Coelho PL, Oliveira MN, Menezes-Filho NJ, Costa MF, El-Bachá RS, Velozo ES, Sampaio GP, Freire SM, Tardy M, Costa SL. Antiproliferative, proapoptotic and morphogenic effects of the flavonoid rutin on human glioblastoma cells. Food Chem. 2011 Jul 15;127(2):404-11. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2010.12.131. Epub 2011 Jan 8.
  29. Celik H, Arinç E. Evaluation of the protective effects of quercetin, rutin, naringenin, resveratrol and trolox against idarubicin-induced DNA damage. J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2010;13(2):231-41.
  30. Cristina Marcarini J, Ferreira Tsuboy MS, Cabral Luiz R, Regina Ribeiro L, Beatriz Hoffmann-Campo C, Ségio Mantovani M. Investigation of cytotoxic, apoptosis-inducing, genotoxic and protective effects of the flavonoid rutin in HTC hepatic cells. Exp Toxicol Pathol. 2011 Jul;63(5):459-65. doi: 10.1016/j.etp.2010.03.005. Epub 2010 Apr 17.
  31. Awatsuhara R, Harada K, Maeda T, Nomura T, Nagao K. Antioxidative activity of the buckwheat polyphenol rutin in combination with ovalbumin. Mol Med Rep. 2010 Jan-Feb;3(1):121-5. doi: 10.3892/mmr_00000228.
  32. Gong G, Qin Y, Huang W, Zhou S, Yang X, Li D. Rutin inhibits hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis through regulating reactive oxygen species mediated mitochondrial dysfunction pathway in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Eur J Pharmacol. 2010 Feb 25;628(1-3):27-35. doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2009.11.028. Epub 2009 Nov 25.
  33. Acquaviva R, Lanteri R, Li Destri G, Caltabiano R, Vanella L, Lanzafame S, Di Cataldo A, Li Volti G, Di Giacomo C. Beneficial effects of rutin and L-arginine coadministration in a rat model of liver ischemia-reperfusion injury. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2009 Mar;296(3):G664-70. doi: 10.1152/ajpgi.90609.2008. Epub 2008 Dec 24.
  34. Undeğer U, Aydin S, Başaran AA, Başaran N. The modulating effects of quercetin and rutin on the mitomycin C induced DNA damage. Toxicol Lett. 2004 Jun 15;151(1):143-9.
  35. Watanabe M1, Ayugase J. Chiral separation of catechins in buckwheat groats and the effects of phenolic compounds in mice subjected to restraint stress. J Agric Food Chem. 2009 Jul 22;57(14):6438-42. doi: 10.1021/jf901281j.
  36. Bao XY, He FY, Zeng JL, Xia ZS, Deng JL, Sun QH, Lei H, Du YR. [Synthesis and identification of rutin complete antigen and analysis its immunogenicity]. [Article in Chinese] Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2013 Feb;38(3):397-401.
  37. Valentová K, Šíma P, Rybková Z, Křížan J, Malachová K, Křen V. (Anti)mutagenic and immunomodulatory properties of quercetin glycosides. J Sci Food Agric. 2015 May 9. doi: 10.1002/jsfa.7251. [Epub ahead of print]
  38. Jiménez-Aliaga K, Bermejo-Bescós P, Benedí J, Martín-Aragón S. Quercetin and rutin exhibit antiamyloidogenic and fibril-disaggregating effects in vitro and potent antioxidant activity in APPswe cells. Life Sci. 2011 Dec 19;89(25-26):939-45. doi: 10.1016/j.lfs.2011.09.023. Epub 2011 Oct 8.
  39. Hsieh TJ, Wang JC, Hu CY, Li CT, Kuo CM, Hsieh SL. Effects of rutin from Toona sinensis on the immune and physiological responses of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) under Vibrio alginolyticus challenge. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2008 Nov;25(5):581-8. doi: 10.1016/j.fsi.2008.07.014. Epub 2008 Jul 30.
  40. Roseghini R, Rocha DS, Clarêncio J, Costa SL, Costa MF, Tardy M, Nascimento R, Schaer R, Velozo E, Meyer R, Freire S. Flavonoid rutin alters the viability and function of mitogen-stimulated splenocytes and thymocytes compared with non stimulated cells. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 2007;29(2):271-85.
  41. Cha HJ, Lee KS, Lee GT, Lee KK, Hong JT, Lee SN, Jang HH, Lee JH, Park IC, Kim YR, Ahn KJ, Kwon SB, An IS, An S, Bae S. Altered miRNA expression profiles are involved in the protective effects of troxerutin against ultraviolet B radiation in normal human dermal fibroblasts. Int J Mol Med. 2014 Apr;33(4):957-63. doi: 10.3892/ijmm.2014.1647. Epub 2014 Feb 7.
  42. Carelli S, Hebda DM, Traversa MV, Messaggio F, Giuliani G, Marzani B, Benedusi A, Di Giulio AM, Gorio A. A specific combination of zeaxanthin, spermidine and rutin prevents apoptosis in human dermal papilla cells. Exp Dermatol. 2012 Dec;21(12):953-5. doi: 10.1111/exd.12029. Epub 2012 Oct 23.

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