Other Names: Citrus aurantium

A citrus bioflavonoid complex consists of various water-soluble bioflavonoids found in citrus family fruits. The major bioflavonoids include hesperidin, rutin, quercetin, diosmin, naririutin, neohesperidin, nobiletin, diosmetin, tangeretin, noiletin and naringin. It is rich in flavones, polyphenols and essential vitamins.

Citrus bioflavonoid is an especially potent antioxidant that enhances the body’s detoxification system so that it can naturally get rid of harmful substances that can attack and destroy healthy cells. In other words, citrus bioflavonoid promotes optimal cellular health. Due to its strong antioxidant potential, citrus bioflavonoids may also help:

  • Aid natural defenses that protect the body from free radicals
  • Promote ideal blood flow and cholesterol levels already in the healthy range by supporting proper circulatory functions and healthy metabolism
  • Support natural defenses that help protect DNA from foreign invaders
  • Support healthy mood and promote calmness

Studies on Citrus Bioflavonoids:

  1. Cimino F, Cristani M, Saija A, Bonina FP, Virgili F. Protective effects of a red orange extract on UVB-induced damage in human keratinocytes. Biofactors. 2007;30(2):129-38.
  2. Sidney J. Stohs*, Harry G. Preuss and Mohd Shara. The Safety of Citrus aurantium (Bitter Orange) and its Primary Protoalkaloid p-Synephrine; Article first published online: 8 APR 2011; Phytotherapy Research Volume 25, Issue 10, pages 1421–1428, October 2011; DOI: 10.1002/ptr.3490
  3. U. Cornelli, R. Terranova, S. Luca, M. Cornelli, and A. Alberti. Bioavailability and Antioxidant Activity of Some Food Supplements in Men and Women Using the D-Roms Test as a Marker of Oxidative Stress. 2001 The American Society for Nutritional Sciences.
  4. Berlin JM, Eisenberg DP, Berlin MB, Sarro RA, Leeman DR, Fein H. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study to evaluate the efficacy of a citrus bioflavanoid blend in the treatment of senile purpura. J Drugs Dermatol. 2011 Jul;10(7):718-22.
  5. Protective effect of red orange extract supplementation against UV-induced skin damages: photoaging and solar lentigines. Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology (Impact Factor: 1). 06/2014; 13(2):151-7.

Other research:

  1. Pérez-Sánchez A, Barrajón-Catalán E, Caturla N, Castillo J, Benavente-García O, Alcaraz M, Micol V. Protective effects of citrus and rosemary extracts on UV-induced damage in skin cell model and human volunteers. J Photochem Photobiol B. 2014 Jul 5;136:12-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2014.04.007. Epub 2014 Apr 20.
  2. Cardeñosa V, Barreira JC, Barros L, Arenas-Arenas FJ, Moreno-Rojas JM, Ferreira IC. Variety and Harvesting Season Effects on Antioxidant Activity and Vitamins Content of Citrus sinensis Macfad. Molecules. 2015 May 7;20(5):8287-302. doi: 10.3390/molecules20058287.
  3. Bacanlı M, Başaran AA, Başaran N. The antioxidant and antigenotoxic properties of citrus phenolics limonene and naringin. Food Chem Toxicol. 2015 Jul;81:160-70. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2015.04.015. Epub 2015 Apr 17.
  4. Padilla-Camberos E, Lazcano-Díaz E, Flores-Fernandez JM, Owolabi MS, Allen K, Villanueva-Rodríguez S. Evaluation of the inhibition of carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes, the antioxidant activity, and the polyphenolic content of Citrus limetta peel extract. ScientificWorldJournal. 2014;2014:121760. doi: 10.1155/2014/121760. Epub 2014 Dec 21.
  5. Cardeñosa V, Barros L, Barreira JC, Arenas F, Moreno-Rojas JM, Ferreira IC. Different Citrus rootstocks present high dissimilarities in their antioxidant activity and vitamins content according to the ripening stage. J Plant Physiol. 2015 Feb 1;174:124-30. doi: 10.1016/j.jplph.2014.10.013. Epub 2014 Nov 6.
  6. Santos GT, Lima LS, Schogor AL, Romero JV, De Marchi FE, Grande PA, Santos NW, Santos FS, Kazama R. Citrus pulp as a dietary source of antioxidants for lactating holstein cows fed highly polyunsaturated Fatty Acid diets. Asian-Australas J Anim Sci. 2014 Aug;27(8):1104-13. doi: 10.5713/ajas.2013.13836.
  7. Xi W, Fang B, Zhao Q, Jiao B, Zhou Z. Flavonoid composition and antioxidant activities of Chinese local pummelo (Citrus grandis Osbeck.) varieties. Food Chem. 2014 Oct 15;161:230-8. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.04.001. Epub 2014 Apr 12.
  8. Ullah N, Khan MA, Khan T, Ahmad W. Nephroprotective potentials of Citrus aurantium: a prospective pharmacological study on experimental models. Pak J Pharm Sci. 2014 May;27(3):505-10.
  9. Wang QH, Shu ZP, Xu BQ, Xing N, Jiao WJ, Yang BY, Kuang HX. Structural characterization and antioxidant activities of polysaccharides from Citrus aurantium L. Int J Biol Macromol. 2014 Jun;67:112-23. doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2014.03.004. Epub 2014 Mar 12.
  10. Barreca D, Bellocco E, Leuzzi U, Gattuso G. First evidence of C- and O-glycosyl flavone in blood orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) juice and their influence on antioxidant properties. Food Chem. 2014 Apr 15;149:244-52. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.10.096. Epub 2013 Oct 30.
  11. Oboh G, Ademosun AO. Characterization of the antioxidant properties of phenolic extracts from some citrus peels. J Food Sci Technol. 2012 Dec;49(6):729-36. doi: 10.1007/s13197-010-0222-y. Epub 2011 Jan 22.
  12. Constantin RP, do Nascimento GS, Constantin RP, Salgueiro CL, Bracht A, Ishii-Iwamoto EL, Yamamoto NS, Constantin J. Citrus flavanones affect hepatic fatty acid oxidation in rats by acting as prooxidant agents. Biomed Res Int. 2013;2013:342973. doi: 10.1155/2013/342973. Epub 2013 Oct 31.
  13. Contini C, Valzacchi S, O’Sullivan M, Simoneau C, Dowling DP, Monahan FJ. Overall migration and kinetics of release of antioxidant compounds from citrus extract-based active packaging. J Agric Food Chem. 2013 Dec 11;61(49):12155-63. doi: 10.1021/jf402620b. Epub 2013 Nov 22.
  14. Sarrou E, Chatzopoulou P, Dimassi-Theriou K, Therios I. Volatile constituents and antioxidant activity of peel, flowers and leaf oils of Citrus aurantium L. growing in Greece. Molecules. 2013 Sep 2;18(9):10639-47. doi: 10.3390/molecules180910639.
  15. Pérez-Sánchez A, Barrajón-Catalán E, Caturla N, Castillo J, Benavente-García O, Alcaraz M, Micol V. Protective effects of citrus and rosemary extracts on UV-induced damage in skin cell model and human volunteers. J Photochem Photobiol B. 2014 Jul 5;136:12-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2014.04.007. Epub 2014 Apr 20.
  16. Yoshigai E, Machida T, Okuyama T, Mori M, Murase H, Yamanishi R, Okumura T, Ikeya Y, Nishino H, Nishizawa M. Citrus nobiletin suppresses inducible nitric oxide synthase gene expression in interleukin-1β-treated hepatocytes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013 Sep 13;439(1):54-9. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2013.08.029. Epub 2013 Aug 16.
  17. Poon CH, Wong TY, Wang Y, Tsuchiya Y, Nakajima M, Yokoi T, Leung LK. The citrus flavanone naringenin suppresses CYP1B1 transactivation through antagonising xenobiotic-responsive element binding. Br J Nutr. 2013 May;109(9):1598-605. doi: 10.1017/S0007114512003595. Epub 2012 Aug 31.
  18. Seo J, Lee HS, Ryoo S, Seo JH, Min BS, Lee JH. Tangeretin, a citrus flavonoid, inhibits PGDF-BB-induced proliferation and migration of aortic smooth muscle cells by blocking AKT activation. Eur J Pharmacol. 2011 Dec 30;673(1-3):56-64. doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2011.10.011. Epub 2011 Oct 21.
  19. Habauzit V, Sacco SM, Gil-Izquierdo A, Trzeciakiewicz A, Morand C, Barron D, Pinaud S, Offord E, Horcajada MN. Differential effects of two citrus flavanones on bone quality in senescent male rats in relation to their bioavailability and metabolism. Bone. 2011 Nov;49(5):1108-16. doi: 10.1016/j.bone.2011.07.030. Epub 2011 Jul 27.
  20. Akachi T, Shiina Y, Ohishi Y, Kawaguchi T, Kawagishi H, Morita T, Mori M, Sugiyama K. Hepatoprotective effects of flavonoids from shekwasha (Citrus depressa) against D-galactosamine-induced liver injury in rats. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2010;56(1):60-7.
  21. Hwang SL, Yen GC. Neuroprotective effects of the citrus flavanones against H2O2-induced cytotoxicity in PC12 cells. J Agric Food Chem. 2008 Feb 13;56(3):859-64. doi: 10.1021/jf072826r. Epub 2008 Jan 12.
  22. Yasuda N, Ishii T, Oyama D, Fukuta T, Agato Y, Sato A, Shimizu K, Asai T, Asakawa T, Kan T, Yamada S, Ohizumi Y, Oku N. Neuroprotective effect of nobiletin on cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in transient middle cerebral artery-occluded rats. Brain Res. 2014 Apr 22;1559:46-54. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2014.02.007. Epub 2014 Feb 15.
  23. Lu Q, Yang L, Zhao HY, Jiang JG, Xu XL. Protective effect of compounds from the flowers of Citrus aurantium L. var. amara Engl against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatocyte injury. Food Chem Toxicol. 2013 Dec;62:432-5. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2013.08.041. Epub 2013 Aug 25.
  24. Mershiba SD, Dassprakash MV, Saraswathy SD. Protective effect of naringenin on hepatic and renal dysfunction and oxidative stress in arsenic intoxicated rats. Mol Biol Rep. 2013 May;40(5):3681-91. doi: 10.1007/s11033-012-2444-8. Epub 2013 Jan 3.
  25. Zielińska-Przyjemska M, Ignatowicz E. Citrus fruit flavonoids influence on neutrophil apoptosis and oxidative metabolism. Phytother Res. 2008 Dec;22(12):1557-62. doi: 10.1002/ptr.2449.
  26. Mastantuono T, Battiloro L, Sabatino L, Chiurazzi M, Di Maro M, Muscariello E, Colantuoni A, Lapi D. Effects of Citrus Flavonoids Against Microvascular Damage Induced by Hypoperfusion and Reperfusion in Rat Pial Circulation. Microcirculation. 2015 May 5. doi: 10.1111/micc.12207. [Epub ahead of print]
  27. Chen ZY, Li JS, Jiang JP, Yan MX, He BH. [Effect of pure total flavonoids from citrus on hepatic SIRT1/PGC-1alpha pathway in mice with NASH]. [Article in Chinese] Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2014 Jan;39(1):100-5.
  28. Grosso G, Galvano F, Mistretta A, Marventano S, Nolfo F, Calabrese G, Buscemi S, Drago F, Veronesi U, Scuderi A. Red orange: experimental models and epidemiological evidence of its benefits on human health. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2013;2013:157240. doi: 10.1155/2013/157240. Epub 2013 May 2.
  29. Arul D, Subramanian P. Inhibitory effect of naringenin (citrus flavonone) on N-nitrosodiethylamine induced hepatocarcinogenesis in rats. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013 May 3;434(2):203-9. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2013.03.039. Epub 2013 Mar 21.
  30. Soudani N, Rafrafi M, Ben Amara I, Hakim A, Troudi A, Zeghal KM, Ben Salah H, Boudawara T, Zeghal N. Oxidative stress-related lung dysfunction by chromium(VI): alleviation by Citrus aurantium L. J Physiol Biochem. 2013 Jun;69(2):239-53. doi: 10.1007/s13105-012-0207-6. Epub 2012 Sep 13.
  31. Pradeep K, Ko KC, Choi MH, Kang JA, Chung YJ, Park SH. Protective effect of hesperidin, a citrus flavanoglycone, against γ-radiation-induced tissue damage in Sprague-Dawley rats. J Med Food. 2012 May;15(5):419-27. doi: 10.1089/jmf.2011.1737. Epub 2012 Mar 9.
  32. Kumar A, Dogra S, Prakash A. Protective effect of naringin, a citrus flavonoid, against colchicine-induced cognitive dysfunction and oxidative damage in rats. J Med Food. 2010 Aug;13(4):976-84. doi: 10.1089/jmf.2009.1251.
  33. Cimino F, Cristani M, Saija A, Bonina FP, Virgili F. Protective effects of a red orange extract on UVB-induced damage in human keratinocytes. Biofactors. 2007;30(2):129-38.
  34. Guengerich FP, Kim DH. In vitro inhibition of dihydropyridine oxidation and aflatoxin B1 activation in human liver microsomes by naringenin and other flavonoids. Carcinogenesis. 1990 Dec;11(12):2275-9.
  35. Choi SY, Kang P, Lee HS, Seol GH. Effects of Inhalation of Essential Oil of Citrus aurantium L. var. amara on Menopausal Symptoms, Stress, and Estrogen in Postmenopausal Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2014;2014:796518. doi: 10.1155/2014/796518. Epub 2014 Jun 12.
  36. Komori T, Fujiwara R, Tanida M, Nomura J, Yokoyama MM. Effects of citrus fragrance on immune function and depressive states. Neuroimmunomodulation. 1995 May-Jun;2(3):174-80.
  37. Komiya M, Takeuchi T, Harada E. Lemon oil vapor causes an anti-stress effect via modulating the 5-HT and DA activities in mice. Behav Brain Res. 2006 Sep 25;172(2):240-9. Epub 2006 Jun 15.
  38. Yi LT, Li JM, Li YC, Pan Y, Xu Q, Kong LD. Antidepressant-like behavioral and neurochemical effects of the citrus-associated chemical apigenin. Life Sci. 2008 Mar 26;82(13-14):741-51. doi: 10.1016/j.lfs.2008.01.007. Epub 2008 Jan 30.
  39. Watanabe E, Kuchta K, Kimura M, Rauwald HW, Kamei T, Imanishi J. Effects of bergamot ( Citrus bergamia (Risso) Wright & Arn.) essential oil aromatherapy on mood states, parasympathetic nervous system activity, and salivary cortisol levels in 41 healthy females. Forsch Komplementmed. 2015;22(1):43-9. doi: 10.1159/000380989. Epub 2015 Feb 19.

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